McKillop EAA Chapter Newsletter Editor Tips
What is an Editor?
Editor is God. Written large on the chalkboard, these three words greet students on their first day in the magazine editing class taught by Dr. Don Ranly, chairman of the magazine sequence at the University of Missouri School of Journalism. They are not intended to blaspheme the Almighty, nor are they a statement of an editor’s power. They accurately represent the responsibility all editors assume when they create a publication, large or small.
Editors decide what people will know and how they will know it by what they include in the publications they create. Naturally, a publication often is a collaborative effort that involves writers and photographers, and a good editor works gently with them to create the best reading. But good editors must be strong, confident, and sure of themselves—and sure of the readers they serve.
Readers are the ultimate masters of any publication, and in serving them, editors must not have a heart, ego, or feelings. They must not do a friend a favor by covering some event or running his or her story if it’s contrary to the readers’ expressed interests. Editors must not have a personal agenda or a mind closed to suggestions from others. And they must accept criticism as willingly as they accept compliments, taking neither of them personally but paying close attention to the criticism and using it as appropriate to improve the publication.
In the end, there can only be one editor. Someone must have the final word and take the final responsibility. All editors hold enormous influence over their readers—use it wisely.
What Does an Editor Do?
Editors conceive article ideas, make writing assignments, and write the articles that, when combined, create a publication. Whether writing an article or editing the work of another, editors follow the Seven Cs to make the article:
- Correct—Don’t try to fool readers by being obtuse.
- Consistent—Using a stylebook, such as that published by the Associated Press, to make sure dates, places, and other terms are always used the same way. For example, RV-8 should be used in all references, not RV-8 one time and RV8 the next.
- Clear—You should be able to describe what the article is about in one sentence. For example: The purpose of this handout is to help you be a better newsletter editor. Being clear also means using simple words, i.e. "city" instead of "metropolis."
- Concise—You can’t always be brief, but you can always be concise. By adhering to the Seven Cs, you’ll use exactly as many words as it takes to tell the story.
- Coherent—Each paragraph should present a single idea, and one paragraph should flow logically to the next. Outlining the ideas a story presents is one good way to achieve and ensure the article’s coherence.
- Complete—The article shouldn’t raise more questions in the readers’ minds than it answers. For example, if a story on the GlaStar and mention the delta-shaped flow fences at the wing roots and never explains their purpose—your article isn’t complete.
- Creative—This doesn’t mean "artsy" or full of flowery, purple prose. Being concrete, specific, and graphic is the best way to be creative.
Be Actively Creative
When writing or editing, always use the active voice by avoiding the intransitive verb "to be." For example: "It is his intention to write," is in the passive voice. " In the active voice, it is, "He intends to write."
The active voice is clear, concise, and creative. The passive voice is weak and wordy. Sure, in the example the active voice saved just two words over the passive, but imagine an entire article written in the passive voice.
Those who want to avoid or not reveal responsibility favor the passive voice. For example, "It was decided that the airport would be closed to all operations at 9 p.m." Who made that decision? As an editor, it’s your responsibility to find out (or have your reporter find out) who made the decision, because this sentence, "The airport commission ruled that the airport will be closed to all operations at 9 p.m.," better serves your readers.
Another way to be creative is to use examples, which helps your readers understand what you’re discussing. An example of using examples is in the paragraph that precedes this one.
Making comparisons is another creativity tool, and to use them effectively, make your comparisons to things your readers already know or understand. For example, "The Pratt & Whitney R-4360 radial engine has so many banks of cylinders that it looks like a huge steel corncob."
Ultimately, as an editor and, especially, as a writer, you are the reader’s eyes, ears, and nose. Use what these senses tell you when you write and edit, and you’ll have some happy readers.
The Nature of NEWS
Editing a Chapter newsletter is no different that editing Sport Aviation, Time, or your local newspaper. The goal of the editors for each of the publications is the same as yours, to fill your publication with news.
News is a relative term, and what’s news to your local newspaper may not be news to the readers of your newsletter. The criteria that determine news value include reader interest, how many people the news will affect, proximity (who in your Chapter cares about a fly-in breakfast on the other side of the nation), timeliness, prominence of the event or person in the news item, the unusualness of the news (the tired but true cliché of "man bites dog"), and conflict.
Finding the news can seem like a challenge at times, but remember that its root is NEW, and that applies not only to the stories themselves, but the way you tell them. What’s new in your Chapter, at your airport, and around your community is your source of news. At the same time, the news you report must have value to your readers, and whether the news informs, entertains, or educates your readers determines its value.
Some of the obvious story ideas are Chapter activities, from fly-ins, Young Eagle rallies, and community service programs to a new tool loan program, a calendar of events, and a brief summary of the last meeting’s minutes. To many, these subjects may seem like old news, and in many cases they are. But it’s an editor’s job to tell these stories from new perspectives.
For example, rather than giving an overall report of a Chapter fly-in, tell the story from a different person’s perspective—the ticket taker, the lineman parking airplanes, the person at the information counter. Talk to people who are attending the fly-in for the first time and tell the story from their perspective. Not only will these different views give you a new way to tell the story, they may give you ideas for different ways to do things better.
New members of the Chapter are news (do a profile that tells a bit about them), so are old, long-time members. Young Eagles are news, especially if you keep in touch with them as they go on to take flight training and solo. A Chapter officer or member speaking to a community group, the Kiwanis, the Rotary, whatever, is news because it’s spreading the word about recreational aviation.
Flying to new destinations is news, too. Everyone is looking for an excuse to go flying, and checking out a new destination that offers the family some activities would be of interest to your readers. So would reports about project visits or first flights from your Chapter’s Technical Counselor or Flight Advisor. Whenever you get wind of these activities, ask the person involved to write about it and provide photographs, if you can use photos in your publication.
Chapters in your area or state are another source of news, so contact your fellow editors and exchange newsletters. The Chapter office can put you in touch with them. In short, providing your readers with information they can’t get anywhere else is valuable news to them.
Fair Use, Piracy, and Copyright
Reprinting articles verbatim from other publications, such as Sport Aviation or AvWeb, generally isn’t news because the information these articles contain isn't NEW to your readers. Members of your Chapter get and read Sport Aviation, so why waste your valuable space repeating something they’ve already read? The same is often true with news of AvWeb, its AvFlash, and other websites.
Using articles from other sources also brings copyright laws into play. These laws are complex, and the easiest way to avoid running afoul of them is to not copy an entire article and run it in your newsletter without getting written permission from the publication.
When you ask the publication’s editor for permission to reprint, make sure you ask if the author and photographer are employees of the magazine. If they are not employees, ask what rights the magazine purchased. In most cases, magazines buy one-time rights, which means the authors or photographers retain all rights to their work, and you need to get their permission to reprint their work. If the creators of the work are employees of the magazine, the editor can give you permission. When you run the reprint, include a line that says, "Reprinted with Permission, © [the year the article appeared in the publication].
EAA has a standing agreement with its authors that allow EAA Chapter newsletters to reprint articles without seeking permission (you have blanket permission). But use this wisely. As mentioned previously, your readers are also Sport Aviation readers, so don’t waste your valuable space printing something they’ve already read.
You can use segments or portions from a written work that appeared in another publication without seeking permission under the precedent of "fair use." Usually editors do this when reviewing a work or incorporating a bit of information from another source in a larger story. In either case, make sure to attribute the source of the information you’ve used. For example, "Midair collisions are a growing problem, and AvFlash recently reported that "there were four midairs in the past six weeks, at …."
Reporting the News
Perhaps the most intimidating part of being an editor is writing the news. Staring at a blank computer screen tumbling different ideas on how to start is a frightening challenge all writers face. Back when they used paper, Hemmingway called writing, "Slaying the white dragon."
Writing really isn’t that difficult, and people make it harder than it needs to be. To write a good story you need two ingredients, the facts and organization. The facts are easy: who, what, when, where, why, and how come? Ask your sources of information the questions that will give you the answers to these questions, and you’ve got your ingredients.
Organization is a simple task, too. Once you have your facts, outline them on a piece of paper, or put each fact on a note card and shuffle the cards until the series of facts tell a story in a logical order. (One of the best nonfiction writers living today, John McPhee, who writes for The New Yorker, uses this technique, and he just won the Pulitzer Prize for a nonfiction book he wrote, based on his magazine articles.)
Regardless of which method you use, before you start capturing words as digital ones and zeroes in the computer, make sure the story is clear in your mind. As Dr. Ranly often said, "A clear thinker is a clear writer." If the story’s organization and its facts aren’t clear in your mind, the same jumbled mess will appear in print.
As you do when editing someone else’s work, when writing a story you must be able to describe what the story is about in one simple sentence. This is a good place to start your organization because it’s the root of your story’s lead paragraph, which grabs the readers attention and tells them what the rest of the story is about.
There are four basic types of leads: Immediate ID, Delayed ID, Summary, and Multi-Element. Which one you use depends on your story. And in all cases, you don’t have to put all the information into the lead. A rule at many newspapers is that the lead should run around 35 words.
For example, when writing a news item about an upcoming event, you’d use an Immediate ID lead: EAA Chapter 1234 will hold its 10th annual fly-in breakfast at the Anytown Airport between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. on August 15. In 20 words you’ve given readers the Who (Chapter 1234) What (hold a fly-in breakfast) When (8 a.m. and 4 p.m. on August 15) and Where (Anytown Airport).
In subsequent paragraphs you introduce other important information you can’t get into the lead, elaborate on the information in the lead, and continue to introduce new information in order of importance. Generally, you cover one idea or fact in a paragraph. These succeeding paragraphs would contain information such as why the Chapter held the fly-in (perhaps it’s a fundraiser), and other details, such as suggested donation, rain date, traffic pattern altitude, who to contact for more information and how to reach this person, etc.
This process of organizing the facts from the most important to the least important is the tried and true Inverted Pyramid news article. It was originally conceived because to make stories fit the page, editors would run the story until they ran out of room on the page and then cut off everything that didn’t fit. And because the least important information was at the end of the story, the readers weren’t losing much.
A Delayed ID lead is often used with a feature story about an event that’s already taken place. For example: "At the edge of the Anytown Airport, a lone figure squinted at the people enjoying their pancakes in the comfort of padded benches in the shade. Shifting his weight from one foot to the other in an attempt to find a comfortable stance, the figure turned his gaze in the opposite direction, down the road lined with cars.
"Collecting donations at the airport’s entrance wasn’t the best place to enjoy Chapter 1234’s 10th annual fly-in breakfast on August 15, but Bill Jones got to see and hear the participant’s excitement first, and the long row of cars lead to the Chapter adding $1,234 to its "Build a Hangar" campaign."
Here the lead takes more than 35 words, and the Delayed ID is the point of view, that of the ticket taker. But that’s the beauty of a Delayed ID lead and writing the story in a feature style. In the subsequent paragraphs you’d give the rest of the facts seen through the ticket taker’s eyes.
Summary leads compile the results of several elements. For example: "Anytown’s airport commission proposed the elimination of its night operation curfew and ban on hangar maintenance at the city council meeting August 1." In the subsequent paragraphs, you add detail to the summary facts introduced in the lead, and introduce new facts in descending order of importance, just as you would in the inverted pyramid.
In some stories, choosing one central idea for the lead is too restrictive. This is when you use the Multi-Element lead. For example, "A force of 300 EAAers organized by the state Chapter alliance invaded Anytown Airport on August 15 to rout the weeds, trash, and derelict cars that have made the site an eyesore." In the succeeding paragraphs you’d present the facts on the state Chapter alliance (who started it and how), why they decided to invade the Anytown Airport, how the airport got that way, etc.
These are just the basics. There are many other ways to write a story, and the best way to learn them is to read a lot of different publications and study the way they present their stories. Some are written first person, some are presented in a chronological fashion, and others are written as strict questions and answers (the Playboy interviews are, perhaps, the best known and most effective example of the Q&A format).
Selling the Story
Just because you create a newsletter doesn’t mean your Chapter members will automatically read it. More than ever, each of us is bombarded by information, in print, on TV and radio, through the Internet. Each of these mediums vie for our most precious commodity—time. In addition to writing a 7-C story, you have to sell it. You have to attract readers and make them want to read the story.
The first thing that attracts a person to a story is a photograph. Like the article, it should tell a story, and it should have a caption that explains what’s going on in the photo. Captions should not state the obvious or editorialize, i.e. "The beautiful airplane…" While you might believe the airplane to be beautiful, the readers might have contrary feelings. Be specific in captions, and avoid such terms as "is pictured", "is shown", and "poses." Write captions in the present tense, and make sure you identify everyone in the photo.
A photo doesn’t guarantee that readers will get into the story, but it leads them to the next thing that attracts readers—the headline.
Headlines or titles attract the reader’s attention, summarize the story’s content, help readers index the stories on the page, give the mood of the story, and provide typographic relief (we’ll address typography, design, and production shortly). Headlines are a short sentence that is grammatically correct, doesn’t repeat words, doesn’t overstate what the story is about, and doesn’t bore the reader.
In other words, the headline must pass the "So What?" test. If you read the headline and think, "So what?" the headline won’t inspire readers to actually read the article. You can support the headline with a subhead that expands on the initial thought. For example:
Recycling pays for plane
If you have a longer headline and divide it into two lines (called "decks"), the two lines should be separated by a grammatical break. For example:
FAA to Charge User Fees
for U.S. Overflights
New Surveillance Radar
To make headlines easy to read, they should be in a typeface larger than the body copy or text, and you can capitalize the first word in the headline and all proper nouns (called "Sentence Style) or every word with more than three letters (called "Downstyle"). Using all caps is not recommended because this is hard to read.
In longer stories that run a page or more, or don’t have any photos to break up the gray fabric the text creates, you can use a "blurb" or "pull quote" to attract readers and make the page more visually appealing (we’ll address newsletter design and production shortly). A blurb is a short sentence pulled from the story itself that highlights some aspect of the story. For example: "When I go on evening walks, I’ll carry a bag to pick up cans along the way."
Selling Your Chapter
In addition to selling your stories, your newsletter can sell your Chapter to others not familiar with it. Send it to other Chapters in the area, and leave copies in the pilot lounges of all the FBOs and flight schools at surrounding airports. To do this effectively, you must give the passerby a reason to pick up your newsletter and read it. There are two ways to do this. The first is to put your best story, preferably one with a photo on the front page.
The second, an attractive, informative logo is, perhaps, more important. A logo is the newsletter’s headline, i.e. "Chapter 1234 News" or whatever you’ve named your newsletter. A logo must contain more than just the newsletter’s name. It should include the Chapter’s number, city, state, and the issue date. For example:
By the Numbers
EAA Chapter 1234—Anytown, USA—August 2000
Inside your newsletter, preferably on page 2, you should have a masthead that provides pertinent information, including the Chapter officers, when and where the Chapter holds its meetings, and a number and e-mail address people can use for more information. Don’t forget your name. As the editor, the newsletter wouldn’t exist without you.
Newsletter Design & Production
No newsletter can survive without good content, but our aim in this portion of the workshop is to present that content in an attractive, inviting, and effective package.
None of these ideas are hard and fast rules. And rules—especially as they relate to design—are meant to be broken. But before you break the rules, you have to understand them.
Evaluate First Impressions
Before you begin to analyze the layout, the writing, the use of graphics and white space, pick up your newsletter and look at it for the first time. Too close to the subject? Ask a friend to help. Before you see the trees, look at the forest.
One measure of a newsletter’s effectiveness is the first impression a reader has upon seeing it. Does it say:
b o r i n g
read me NOW
save me for later
or, don’t bother—there’s nothing important here.
Without reading more than a few words, the nameplate (logo), the choice of layout, the grayness or openness of the design, color and weight of the paper, the balance of text and graphics, all give clues as to the perceived value of the content.
Will a new reader perceive value in your newsletter?
Design With Definite Goals in Mind.
One goal of good newsletter design is to entice the reader to read the information in the newsletter. Designers achieve this through choice of layout, typefaces, and use of visual elements.
But those choices should also be guided by other factors such as the purpose, the audience, and the desired image of the newsletter. The use of provocative images may catch a readers eye, but do they represent the image your Chapter wants to convey? Do they enhance or overshadow the message?
Look at your newsletter from the perspective of the new reader—someone seeing this newsletter for the first time—and ask yourself these questions:
1 What is the purpose of the newsletter and who is the intended audience?
The purpose and audience should be readily discerned simply by looking at the nameplate and perhaps the table of contents. Does the name of the newsletter or a subtitle tell the first time reader what to expect?
2 Who is sending this newsletter?
Disclosure can lead to trust. Is the Chapter number and location listed as part of the banner (logo)? Is there a masthead listing the Chapter officers and their contact information?
3 What type of image does the newsletter reflect?
Does the newsletter have a formal or casual look? Does it appear to be carefully put together or simply slapped on paper and shoved out the door? The choice of paper, its size and thickness, also contribute to the image. Does it look cheap, friendly, elegant, or institutional?
Spotting a Bad Newsletter
Unreadable Typeface—That fancy typestyle might look classy on the computer screen, but it can be so hard to read that your fellow Chapter members could toss your newsletter in the trash can. Keep your type simple enough and large enough to get your message read. Don’t go any smaller than 9 point type, and column widths should never extend the width of the page.
Too Wordy—You may have a lot to offer, but don't get carried away. Your readers lead busy lives. Make it simple for him or her to understand what you’re trying to say.
Poor Design—Nothing turns off a reader faster than long dull columns of gray type. Focus your readers’ attention with creative graphic elements—art, photos, boxes, and screen tints. These will help them better understand your message—the content.
Bad Artwork—The best layout and writing can be undone by poor artwork. So don’t be too clever. Many Chapter newsletters wander away from their purpose and are cluttered with too many graphics. Just like too many fonts, some computer applications make it too easy to add meaningless or redundant clip-art-style graphics.
Tips for creating a better newsletter
Learn About Typefaces—By being aware of type when you read your favorite magazine, the newspaper, or other newsletter. Be aware of type sizes, styles most frequently used, and leading (the space between each line of type). Which combinations are easiest for you to read?
- Columns of type, not too wide
- Avoid large areas of text that’s NOT broken up by graphics, pictures, or larger text
- Keep left margins flush
- Don’t reverse out large blocks of text
- Just because your computer can display and print 250 different fonts doesn’t mean you have to use them all.
- Use serif (Roman) face for body text (the short cross lines at the end of the main strokes of letters: Times Roman, Clearface, New Century)—it’s easier to read—(9 to 11 points with at least one point of leading). Use sans serif (Gothic) face for headlines (Helvetica, Futura, Franklin Gothic)
Headline in 24 Point in Franklin Gothic
Body Text in 12 Point Times New Roman
Have a Good Mix—Include photographs and art work in your newsletter. Nothing is more boring than reading straight text. Simplicity equals easy-to-read, but doesn’t necessarily mean boring.
Don’t Get Overly Fancy With Printing—The main object of your newsletter is that it gets read. Stay away from colored ink for text—newsletter articles look best in black or dark blue. Use a second and/or third color sparingly—for screen tints, large drop caps at the beginning of an article, page numbers, and any other graphic that is repeated throughout the newsletter. Too much use of another color is distracting to the reader. Print your newsletter on an easy-to-read paper - white, off-white, light gray, beige, etc. Avoid colored paper.
We’ll talk more about printing and production later.
Consistency, Cut Clutter, Contrast
Editors follow the Seven Cs, but when you’re wearing your art director’s hat, the three Cs of design can improve the overall appearance and the first impression of your newsletter. The three Cs are Consistency, Conservation, and Contrast.
Consistency—Is the name of the newsletter or its subtitles consistent with the desired purpose and audience, or do they imply something different? For instance, if you want to portray a fun and exciting Chapter, a formal, conservative, and boring layout isn’t consistent with the image you’re trying to portray. A lack of contrast between headlines and text and other elements can give an impression that the contents are boring or uninteresting. Consistency aids the reader by organizing your words and eliminating distracting clutter. Consistency unifies the many different elements—headlines, text, clip art, photos, captions, short stories, long stories, fillers, etc.—and doesn't distract the reader from the message.
What would be inconsistent? Different margins on each page. A different typestyle for every headline. Not using the same basic layout on each page or changing the "look" with every issue. Clip art and graphics that don't relate to the newsletter contents. These are some examples of inconsistency. How do you maintain consistency?
- Design around a grid.
- Use templates and styles.
- Use repeating elements (i.e. the same header on each inside page; the same design on all articles; the same standing header for all recurring columns).
Cut the Clutter—Let the message shine through. Most of you will use a computer to layout your Chapter newsletter. A common mistake new desktop publishers is to overload documents with fancy fonts and clip art in the mistaken belief that it adds interest and makes it less boring. Use fonts and artwork only to lead the reader through your publication and illustrate the words.
Conserve valuable newsletter real estate by not filling it up with unnecessary and distracting visual elements. Conserve your readers time and eyesight by choosing type for its readability not its "gee whizziness."
How do you cut the clutter and practice conservation in design?
- Use no more than three typefaces. Make sure they are readable fonts. Choose a suitable type for body copy since it makes up the bulk of your text, then pick a readable and preferably bold san serif font for your heads lines.
- Use frames and boxes sparingly. They make great graphic devices for breaking up text, adding interest, and helping to tell the story, but they can be overdone when used just as "space filler." Mix big and small, black and white, plums, and pineapples.
- Limit clip art, photos, graphic accents to one or two per page.
A headline set in the same typeface as the body text has no contrast. Make the headline 2 points larger and it just looks timid—readers won’t be quite sure if it’s a headline or not. Make it bold, make it double the point size of the body text, change the typestyle, and you have contrast. Now it looks like a headline. Now it grabs your attention, says "read me," and entices you to dive in to the rest of the story.
You can achieve contrast through size, alignment, color, shape, etc. Don't be timid. Type reversed out of a pale blue box has no contrast. Make the box dark blue with that white type and things start to pop.
Here are some specific examples of contrast:
- Be sure every article has a headline! Use a bold sans serif type for headlines and a serif for body text.
- Break up long articles with subheads. These should be more prominent than the body text.
- Make it big, really big. Use an exaggerated drop cap or enlarge a single piece of clip art to make a statement. Initial caps, by their size or design attract the readers eye. They signal the start of a story or a change in focus. In long articles or predominantly text publications they provide a visual break.
- Set text in columns with an extra wide outside margin. White space provides contrast to the columns of text, especially in newsletters with long articles.
Look at your own Chapter newsletter. Can you identify the presence or absence of the 3Cs—consistency, conservation, and contrast? Sketch out some new designs, concentrating on one C at a time. Often you can achieve dramatic improvement with only a few simple changes.
Adding Photos & Graphics
With the growing popularity and declining prices for digital cameras and scanners, it’s easier than ever to add pictures to your newsletter.
To spice up your newsletter, crop your pictures untraditionally—you don't need to see the whole head to recognize a person.
Use clip art, but don’t get carried away. Clip art can look "been there, seen that" very fast, so use it sparingly. Again, remember to vary the size of your graphics to avoid putting people to sleep.
If you use photos, feature a caption under each. (You can bet that a lot of your readers are only going to look at the pictures, read the captions, and glance at the headlines. So it’s up to those three elements to draw them into the story.)
Ready for press
Once you’ve assembled your newsletter so it looks good to you, have somebody else review it with a sharp eye for errors and problems. Now you’re ready to go to the printer.
Most newsletters will be printed from a laser or computer-printed page. Some Chapters use a computer printer—color or black only—as a "printing press" making enough copies directly from their printer. Other use a master and have photocopies made. More and more newsletters are being sent in digital format directly to the printer.
If that’s how you produce your newsletter, here are some tips to make sure it gets done right:
- Print out a 100-percent laser printout of your newsletter for the printer and fold it down so it looks like you want it to look when it mails. This is called a folding dummy and serves as a blueprint of your expectations.
- If your printer will be making copies digitally (from a computer file) make sure your file format is compatible with your printer’s capabilities.
- Include the name and version of programs you used to create page layouts, illustrations, and images. (For example, Quark Xpress 3.2, Microsoft Word 6.0, etc.) Don’t forget to send along the support graphics (scanned pictures, clip art, etc.) and the fonts you used to create your newsletter.
Mailing Requirements — Plan for a return address area. Decide in advance how you’ll fold and mail your newsletter, and reserve space for your return address and mailing labels. Don’t forget to add the phone, fax and email address so people can easily see how to get in touch with you.
Use wafer seals, not staples (the automation machinery at the post office hates staples).
Always have your local post office review your newsletter as it is to be mailed for proper postage and format. Domestic Mail Manual can be—and is—interpreted a hundred different ways. Better safe than sorry.
EAA Chapters can NOT ride on EAA’s corporate non-profit charter to qualify for non-profit organization postal discounts. Many Chapters have their own 501(c)3 status and may qualify for postal discounts. Check with your local post office about the requirements. If you have a large chapter, you may qualify for periodical rate (formerly Second class) or Standard rate (formerly Bulk rate) postage. But there are a lot of pitfalls (minimum quantities, no advertising in periodicals rate mailing, etc.)